What are the layers of the OSI reference model?

What are the layers of the OSI reference model?

OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection. It is a reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. It describes the communication functions of a system; so that a product or software program can define how it will interoperate will other products and software programs.

The OSI reference model breaks down the functions into seven layers, which are as follows:

Layer 1: Physical Layer – Transmission and reception of raw bit streams over a physical medium

Layer 2: Data Link Layer – Reliable transmission of data frames between two nodes that are connected by a physical layer

Layer 3: Network Layer – Structuring and managing a multi-node network, including addressing, routing and traffic control

Layer 4: Transport Layer – Reliable transmission of data segments between points on a network, including segmentation, acknowledgement and multiplexing

Layer 5: Session Layer – Managing communication sessions, i.e. continuous exchange of information in the form of multiple back-and-forth transmissions between two nodes

Layer 6: Presentation Layer – Translation of data between a networking service and an application; including character encoding, data compression and encryption/decryption

Layer 7: Application Layer – High-level APIs, including resource sharing, remote file access

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