What is the difference between top down approach and bottom up approach in programming languages?

Programming languages often follow either a top down approach or a bottom up approach. Both of the types of approach are involved in software development, and not in program execution. Some of the differences between these types of approaches are:

Top down approach

Bottom up approach

Is the breaking down of a program to gain insight into its compositional small program (or module) in a reverse engineering fashion.

Is the piecing together of module (or small program) to give rise to more complex program, thus making the original modules of the emergent program.

Structure/procedure oriented programming languages like C follows top down approach.

Object oriented programming languages like C++ and Java follow bottom up approach.

Begins with high level design and ends with low level design or development

Begins with low level design or development and ends with high level design.

main() function is written first and all sub functions are called from main function

Code is developed for modules and then these modules are integrated with main() function

However, in today’s day and age, most modern software use a combination of a top down approach and bottom up approach so as it include the best of both worlds, and to negate the limitations of each.

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